A poor individual who acted in an indifferent or prissy manner would not receive any response from the financially stable individual, not because his or her current situation had changed, in fact that person is still the poor individual you saw a few minutes ago, but in fact your demeanor had changed due to feeling rules.
Commercialization of Human Feeling. But one should never forget in this process that sticking to certain theoretical tradition makes it easier to structure the data but also carries the risk that concepts are neglected that would suit the data even better and would yield more interesting insights.
There are many ways to cope and adapt to changes. Rather it should constitute a sometimes only loosely connected "heuristic framework" of concepts or "coding families" which helps the researcher to focus the attention on certain phenomena in the empirical field.
Techniques developed in the past two decades for a computer-assisted categorisation, archiving and structuration of qualitative data can also support the process of further grounding theoretical concepts in the data by systematically searching for empirical evidence and counter-evidence KELLE Instead, with the help of its Saudi ally, Washington is trying to drive down the oil price by flooding an already weak market with crude.
If an innovative research process should be successful this framework must not work as a Procrustean bed into which empirical facts are forced. The flight attendance uplifts the customer through his or her demeanor and expression of feelings.
However, at the same time, it can be harmful to the flight attendant because they are not able to express their feelings, but rather suppress their feelings for the benefit of others.
If, for instance, social aspects of chronic pain are investigated the researcher may try to identify typical action contexts which are relevant for patients with chronic pain as well as characteristic patterns of pain management strategies. At a certain point in the research process CRESSEY indeed searched systematically for "crucial cases" and "negative instances" of trust violators who saw their trust violations as justifiable.
Hochschild showed that male flight attendants showed more power and tolerated less abuse from passengers than female flight attendants.
There are obviously social interactions which do not require emotional labour, and the assertion that certain service providers are expected to do emotional labour can in principle be falsified.
Towards a Theory of Scientific Growth. Thereby, special emphasis is laid on the intentions and goals of the actors and on the process character of human action and interaction. Maciesz argues that women are expected to set themselves aside for the benefit of their families, and since that is a kind of work, they should be compensated.
Furthermore, the concept of theoretical sensitivity is not converted into clear cut methodological rules: Rational work is the ability to think cognitively and analytically, while emotional work means to think more practically and with more reason. Abduction becomes an innovative process by modifying and combining several elements of previous knowledge—"it is the idea of putting together what we had never before dreamed of putting together which flashes the new suggestion before our contemplation" 5.
And a researcher with a broad and extended theoretical background knowledge and a longstanding experience in the application of theoretical terms, on the other hand, would certainly not need such a list.
Within bodily emotion work, one attempts to change physical symptoms in order to create a desired emotion. A major problem with GLASER's list of coding families is that it completely lacks such a differentiation between formal and substantial notions.
If these assertions are not only mere descriptions of observed events but represent theoretical claims they have to be regarded as fallible. But theoretical sensitivity, the ability to grasp empirical phenomena in theoretical terms, requires an extended training in sociological theory cf.
This all tracks with how academics describe emotional labor. Hypothetical inferences may lead to rational and well-founded assertions which are both consistent with observed phenomena and with previous theoretical knowledge. Whereas, if they were in a classroom with a white professor that had made the same statement that a black professor had made previously, the white professor was not questioned and was viewed as knowledgeable.
One could also use the term "hypothetical reasoning" which reflects its specific role in the research process: Then one can be relatively sure that the theory will fit and work" p.
Another way of inverting a deductive syllogism is hypothetical inference which starts with an empirical phenomenon and proceeds to a general statement which explains the observed phenomenon.
That is, occupations with high cognitive demands evidence wage returns with increasing emotional labor demands; whereas occupations low in cognitive demands evidence a wage "penalty" with increasing emotional labor demands.
At the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Leidner's study, these interactions are strictly scripted, and workers' compliance with the scripts and regulations are closely monitored.
Instead, the framework which guides empirical investigations should be modified, rebuilt and reshaped on the basis of empirical material.
Theories as Heuristic Tools in Qualitative Research. Basics of Qualitative Research. This coding paradigm can be especially helpful during "axial coding" which "consists of intense analysis done around one category at time in terms of the paradigm items" p.
This theory that exists within a sociologist can be used in generating his specific theory This requirement rather represents a matter of course given the methodological fact that empirical research can never provide a final proof for theoretical propositions but only cumulative and always provisional evidence.
Since people generally associate males with being tough and associate females with being sweet, feeling rules makes them feel appalled when a women behaves in a tough manner, but when a male behaves in the same way, it is seen as acceptable.
There are obviously social interactions which do not require emotional labour, and the assertion that certain service providers are expected to do emotional labour can in principle be falsified. Categories like "school", "work" or "family" represent simple examples for that, but topic oriented categories may be far more complex.
Eighteen out of 20 of the women interviewed said that, while they only recently learned the term “emotional labor,” it was something that they’d internalized from a young age — in romantic relationships, familial relationships and friendships. Feeling rules are socially shared norms that influence how people want to try to feel emotions in given social relations.
This concept was introduced by sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild in Hochschild's book, "The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling," discusses feeling rules in greater depth, especially in the occupational worlds of flight attendants and bill.
Volume 6, No. 2, Art. 27 – May "Emergence" vs. "Forcing" of Empirical Data? A Crucial Problem of "Grounded Theory" Reconsidered. Udo Kelle. Abstract: Since the late s Barney GLASER and Anselm STRAUSS, developers of the methodology of "Grounded Theory" have made several attempts to explicate, clarify and reconceptualise some of the basic tenets of their methodological approach.
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Emotional labor is the process of managing feelings and expressions to fulfill the emotional requirements of a job. More specifically, workers are expected to regulate their emotions during interactions with customers, co-workers and superiors.A book analysis of the managed heart by arlie hochschild